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Indians of North America
Klamath and Modoc
by Robert H. Ruby and John A. Brown
A Guide to the Indian Tribes of the Pacific Northwest
(The Civilization of the American Indian Series; 173)
Copyright 1986 by the University of Oklahoma Press, Norman, Publishing Division of the University. ISBN 0-8061-1967-5
Klamaths: Page 90 – 95
Modocs: Page 134 -136
The anthropologist A.L Kroeber suggests that the name Klamath stems possibly from the Calapooya name, Athlameth, for this people. Anthropologist Albert Samuel Gatschet reported that the tribe’s own name for themselves, Maklaks, means "people," "community," and the like. It has also been reported, by anthropologist Leslie Spier, that the name Klamath is reserved for the Klamath-Marsh-Williamson River subdivision – the Auksni. Other Klamaths use the name only by courtesy. From the Canadian trappers has come down a hybrid French-English name, La Lakes.
Oregon’s Klamath Lake and Klamath County bear the Klamath name today. Within Klamath County is the city of Klamath Falls on Interstate 97. A river in Oregon and California, and a town in the latter state also bear the name. before their treaty with the United States in 1864, the Klamaths – with two other tribes who signed the treaty, the Modocs and the Paiute Yahuskins – claimed over twenty million acres in present-day Oregon and California. The Klamaths gained much attention when the United States terminated its trust relationship with them by an act dated August 13. 1954 (25 Stat. 718 USC X 564).
Location: In 1957, 404 of the 2,038 Klamaths lived outside Oregon. Three hundred of those who remained in Oregon lived mostly in the south-central part of the state, but off the reservation. In the post-termination era the Klamaths have tended to live in the general area where the Klamaths proper formerly lived. The former village sites were on the Klamath Lake and Klamath Marsh and on the Williamson and Sprague rivers.
Numbers: On the final tribal roll at the time of termination in 1958, there were 2,133 members. In 1977 the same number were listed as Klamaths. In 1848, Klamath numbers had stood roughly at 1,000. Estimates of the 1780 numbers have varied from 400 to 1,000. In 1923, there were 1,201 Klamaths, Modocs, and other Indians under the Klamath superintendency. In 1930, 2,034 were listed as Klamaths, probably including members of other tribes.
History: Because of their interior location in present-day south-central Oregon and north-central California, the Klamaths were able to avoid white men until late in the contact period. The Hudson’s Bay Company trader Peter Skene Ogden, who met them in 1826, called them a "happy race." They would not be so for long, he believed, after they began associating with whites.
Among the goods that the Klamaths obtained from whites were guns and horses. At The Dalles on the north, they obtained fro other natives horses, blankets, buffalo skins, and dried salmon, in exchange for slaves that they captured from California tribes. They also exchanged beads, and the seeds of the wocus, which they gathered in marshy places in their homelands. They processed the seeds into a nutritious food that was used in soups or mixed into flour to make cakes. The Klamaths also met annually with other tribes to trade at such places as Yainax east of Klamath Lake. They harpooned fish and shot waterfowl with bows and arrows.
The clothing of both sexes consisted of fiber skirts and basket caps, plus in cold weather tule leggings and sandals, mantles of skin and fiber, and fur mittens. Not until early in the nineteenth century did they adopt buckskin clothing and footwear, which they obtained through trade. They wore dentalia shells in nasal-septum perforations and flattened the heads of their infants. They also adopted the practice of tattooing the body. Their winter habitations were semi-subterranean earthen lodges, which were circular pits as much as four feet deep.
On October 14, 1864, the Klamaths’ treaty (16 Stat. 718) was signed by twenty-one of their chiefs, along with four Modoc and two Yahuskin headmen. These peoples traded to the United States their high, semiarid lands east of the Cascade Mountains for the Klamath Reservation. This reservation of about 1,107,847 acres was proclaimed on February 17, 1870 (16 Stat. 383). The Klamath Agency had been instituted on May 12, 1866, at the upper end of Agency Lake, a few miles south of Fort Klamath and north of Klamath Lakes. The Klamaths settled at the agency with a few disgruntled Modocs. Most of the latter tribe refused to join the Klamaths on the reservation, preferring to remain in their own homelands. Because of intertribal friction, the Modocs and some Upland Klamaths and Yahuskins were placed at Yainax, where a subagency was established in 1870 some thirty-five miles east of the main Klamath Agency.
The boundaries of the Klamath Reservation had been established by surveys in 1871 and 1888 and were reported on December 18, 1896. An act (30 Stat. 571) was passed on July 1 1898, authorizing negotiations for a settlement with the Klamaths for lands that had been excluded from the reservation by erroneous surveys. It was agreed on June 17, 1901, that the Klamaths were to be paid $537,007.02 for 621,824.28 acres of "Klamath Reservation-Excluded Lands." Because many Klamaths sought allotments on sections of the reservation that originally had been intended for a military road company, the allotment process, which had begun on the reservation in 1895, was interrupted two years later by conflicts that remained unresolved until 1906. Allotment resumed three years later. By an act of May 27, 1902 (32 Stat. 260), Klamath children born after allotting had been completed in 1895 were authorized to receive further allotments, but their elders were unhappy that those born after April 15, 1910, could not do so, though as tribal members, they retained an equity in tribal properties.
In 1902 the Modocs, who had been exiled to the Quapaw Agency in Oklahoma after their defeat in 1872-73 in their war with the United States, sent representative to the Klamaths seeking permission for certain of the Modoc tribe to receive allotments on the Klamath Reservation if they returned to the area. The Klamath Council approved the request, and in 1903 twenty-one Modocs settled at the upper end of the north-east portion of the reservation. Forty-seven others wanted to come at a later time. In 1909, Congress authorized allotments to Quapaw Modocs on the Klamath Reservation, but then the Klamaths apposed letting them have the land. Sixteen Modocs, however, were certified for allotments when allotting resumed in 1909. In all 177,719.62 acres were allotted to 1,174 Indians, and 6,094.77 acres were reserved for agency, school, and church purposes.
Unlike most Oregon Indians the Klamaths were not victimized by great epidemics, nor did they come into violent confrontations with whites. Yet in the roughly 100-year history of the Klamath Reservation Indians, perhaps nothing changed their lives more then the termination of their trust relationship with the United States.
Government and Claims: The roots of the modern Klamath General Council, as the tribe was called, lay in the establishment in 1909 of a council to deal more effectively with agency staff. In 1929 the tribe established a business committee. On June 15, 1935, a majority of Klamaths voted to reject the provisions of the Indian Reorganization Act (48 Stat. 984). The termination of the 861,125-acre Klamath Reservation came about as members were permitted to vote for themselves and for their children to be either "withdrawing" members (who would receive about $50,000 each for their share of the tribal assets) or "remaining" members (who would hold tribal interests in common under state law). There were two factions wanting termination. One represented those wanting immediate creation of individual Indian rights, dissolution of the tribe, and distribution of its assets. The other, the tribal governing body, sought tribal identity and tribal rights. Of the 2,133 members on the final roll in 1958, there were 1,660 electing to withdraw and 473 elected to remain. The individual holders of lands no longer in trust became subject to taxation. In 1980 the ‘remaining" Klamaths and their heirs, a total of about 600, received about $173,000 for each of the remaining 473 shares in the thousands of acres of forest lands taken by the federal government through condemnation in 1974 and added to the Winema National Forest.
Before the treaty with the Klamaths, Modocs, and Yahuskins, Congress by an act on July 2, 1864 (13 Stat. 355), granted the state of Oregon three alternating sections of public lands on each side of a military road that was to be constructed from Eugene to the eastern boundary of the state. Having been assigned by the Oregon legislature to construct the road, the Oregon Central Military Road Company began the project. In 1867, 1871, and 1873 the state of Oregon issued patents to the company for a total of 402,240.67 acres, which by conveyances became vested in the California and Oregon Land Company. Of the acreage, with the exception of that required for a right-of-way for the road, 111,385 acres lay within the Klamath Reservation.
Before the establishment of the Indian Claims Commission in 1947, Indian tribes were permitted to sue the United States only on consent of the Congress to recover for losses. An act of May 26, 1920 (41 Stat. 623) permitted Klamaths, Modocs and Yahuskins to bring suit. The government would not stop tribal attempts to reclaim that portion of the reservation given to the Military Road Company. The tribe’s long journey to recover began after the United States unsuccessfully instituted three suits against the company to annul patents to the Indian lands that the company held. In February, 1904, the United States Supreme Court ruled that the Indians had indeed lost 111,400.48 acres. Congress therefore passed an act (33 Stat. 1033) directing the secretary of the interior to ascertain the value of the acreage and to ask the California & Oregon Land Company how much it would be willing to accept in return for the lands or whether it would accept other un-allotted lands within the reservation in exchange.
Eventually the land company conveyed to the United States the 111,400.48 acres, accepting in lieu 86,418.06 acres of un-allotted choice timber lands near Yamsey Mountain. That exchange was concluded on August 22, 1906, in accordance with provisions of the act of June 21, 1906 (34 Stat. 325, 367) without the knowledge of or any compensation to the tribe. In 1913, the Internal Revenue Service valued the tribe’s timber at $3,550,000. The land exchange had reduced the reservation by 86,418.06 acres.
On November 2, 1907, the secretary of the interior suggested that the Indians be paid $108,750 for the lost acreage, and on April 30, 1908, Congress appropriated the monies (35 Stat. 70, 92). In councils about 150 adult Klamath males, of a total of 287 adult males, signed the release that relinquished lands for monies offered. After the May, 1920 act enabling the Klamaths to sue for a more equitable payment for the 86,418.06 acres, the case was argued in 1934 before the Court of Claims. On April 8, 1935, that body decided against the Indian plaintiffs.
An act of May 15, 1936, authorized and directed the Court of Claims to reinstate and rehear the case. On April 25, 1938, the Supreme Court confirmed a Court of Claims award of $2,980,000 for the lands plus interest, for a total of $5,313,347.32. Ironically, the military road that set off all the above developments was never used.
On January 31, 1964, one hundred years after their initial treaty with the government, the Klamaths, after presenting to the Indian Claims Commission their claim (Docket 100) for lands ceded in 1864, were awarded $2.5 million, for which Congress specified methods of distribution in an act of October 1, 1965 (79 Stat. 879). Various other claims were put into separate dockets.
The Klamaths filed a claim (Docket 100-A) for additional compensation for 621,824.28 acres of the reservation excluded by erroneous surveys. An award was made by the Claims Commission on September 2, 1969, for $4,162,992.82 above the original consideration paid for the boundary-survey errors.
For mismanagement of their funds and properties the Klamaths filed a claim (Docket 100 B-1), on which the commission made its final judgment on January 21, 1977, by awarding the tribe $18 million, after the case had been appealed to the Court of Claims (Docket 389-72).
A claim for mismanagement of tribal forest and sawmill operations was filed (Docket 100 B-2), and on May 1, 1982, the members by a twelve vote margin, accepted the government’s offer of $16.5 million to settle that claim. Far less then the tribe wanted, the monies were distributed to those living of the 2,133 members of record on August 13, 1954, or their descendants.
Claims for mismanagement of Klamath grazing and agricultural lands and irrigation projects, as well as for rights-of-way conveyed through tribal lands at less than fair market value (Docket 100-C), were disposed of by a final award of $785,000, for which the Klamath Executive Committee passed a resolution on January 16, 1976, asking that the proceeds from the docket be disbursed to pay off tribal loans used for litigating funds.
After Congress had twice put off the termination of federal supervision as a result of the Termination Act of August 13, 1954 (from the initial date of August 13, 1958. to August 12, 1961), two suits were filed in 1961 and 1962 before the Court of Claims for additional compensation for the tribal lands disposed of during terminations (Antelope Desert, Klamath Marsh, and ten units of Klamath forest land). The property selected for sale as a result of termination constituted 77.825 percent of the value of the total estate. Of that, 78 percent was forest land, which had the greatest value of all. These suits, Dockets 125-61 and 87-62, were consolidated, becoming Docket 387-72. The result was an award to the majority of Klamaths of $21,235,496.80 (Docket 125-61).The other 162 tribal members (represented by Docket 87-62) were awarded $2,220,793.20.
Contemporary Life and Culture: The problems attending termination were severe for the Klamaths. Claiming no responsibility for the effects, Congress had made no provision for a follow-up program for the tribe except to assist in hunting and fishing activities through contracts with the BIA, since with termination there was no abrogation of those contracts. Receipt of the monetary awards made many recipients victims of white men wishing to cash in on the Indians’ payments. Individual tribal identity problems followed in the wake of termination. The withdrawal of federal services aggravated the situation. Many BIA programs came to an end.
In 1969 remaining and withdrawing Klamaths and three white persons formed the Organization of Forgotten Americans. Their first objective was to seek funding from various sources. The organization gradually introduced education, youth, and alcohol programs for the welfare and betterment of the Klamaths. It also tried to protect them from squandering the compensation from any future claims, in which they appear to have been moderately successful. Most important, the organization worked toward reinstatement of the Klamath Indian Tribe, to make it eligible to receive federal funds and services of the BIA. The tribe meanwhile seeks to retain its cultural heritage. It has entered into an agreement with the United States Forest Service to establish cultural camps at the head of the Williamson River, a traditional tribal area in the Winema National Forest, where the tribe retains hunting and fishing rights on former reservation lands. In 1984 one tribal member kept a fire that he vowed never to extinguish until his people regain their lost lands. See also Modoc.
Suggested Readings: S.A. Barrett, The Material Culture of the Klamath and Modoc Indians, University of California Publications in American Archaeology and Ethnology, no. 5 (Berkeley, Calif., 1907–1910) pp. 239-92; Charles Crane brown "Identification of Selected Problems of Indians Residing in Klamath County, Oregon – An Examination of Data Generated Since Termination of the Klamath Reservation," dissertation, University of Oregon, 1973; Luther Sheeleigh Cressman, The Sandal and the Cave: The Indians of Oregon, Studies in History, no. 8 (Corvallis, Ore.; Oregon State University Press, 1981); Edward S. Curtis, The North American Indian (1912; New York, Johnson Reprint Corporation, 1970), vol. 13; Albert Samuel Gatschet, The Klamath Indians of Southwestern Oregon vol. 2 of Smithsonian Institution, Contributions to North American Ethnology (Washington, D.C.; Government Printing Office, 1890), pts 1 and 2; Carrol B. Howe, Ancient Tribes of the Klamath Country (Portland, Ore.: Binfords and Mort, 1968); Leslie Spier, Klamath Ethnography, University of California Publications in American Archaeology and Ethnology, vol. 30 (Berkeley, Calif., 1930); Theodore Stern, "The Klamath Indians and the Treaty of 1864," Oregon Historical Quarterly 57 (March, 1956-December, 1956); Theodore Stern, The Klamath Tribe: A People and Their Reservation (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1965).
Klamath and Modoc Tribes and Yahooskin Band of Snake Indians
The Klamath and Modoc Tribes and Yahooskin Band of Snake Indians is composed of descendants of the Klamaths, Modocs, and the Yahuskin Paiutes who treated with the United States on October 14, 1864. Under provisions of their treaty the three tribes were assigned to one reservation, the Klamath. For an account of this tribe see Klamath.
The name Modoc stems from the native word for "southerners," indicating that it may have been given the tribe by northern neighbors, such as the Klamaths. Today a county bear the name, as well as Modoc Point, Oregon. Formerly, Tule and Clear lakes were known as Modoc Lakes. Several places in the central and southern United States bear the name Modoc.
The Modocs lived in what today are the Oregon-California borderlands, on Lower Klamath, Modoc, Tule, and Clear lakes and in the Lost River valley. At times their territory extended to Goose Lake. Historically, they were closely associated with the Klamaths and perhaps drifted with them into the lakes district of southern Oregon and northern California as early as the fifteenth century. The two peoples separated after the middle of the eighteenth century, but were later rejoined.
The Modocs are remembered for their stubborn but futile resistance to American troops and their Indian scouts in the Lava Beds of northern California in 1872 and 1873. Their 1780 numbers have been variously estimated at from 400 to 800. In 1905 there were 56 on the Quapaw Agency in Indian Territory (Oklahoma), where they were sent after their defeat except for 223 who remained on the Klamath Reservation. Of the 282 Modocs in 1910, 212 lived in Oregon, 33 in Oklahoma, and 20 in California. The remainder were scattered among at least five other states. In 1937 there were a reported 329 Modocs. Today they are incorporated with other Indian tribes, especially the Klamaths, under whose standard Modoc descendants were involved in the mid-twentieth-century termination of the Klamath Reservation.
The Modocs hunted deer, antelope, and mountain sheep, as well as rabbit and squirrel. They gathered roots and seeds, most commonly the wocus, a species of water lily that was sought by the Klamaths also. They also caught and dried fish. In aboriginal times they made their clothing of grass or tule fiber and animal skins decorated with shell beadwork, plus belts of braided grass. By the middle of the nineteenth century they had adopted European-style clothing. Before 1800 they set their lodges in excavations that were a half foot to four feet deep and from twelve to twenty feet wide. The frameworks of willow poles were covered with tule matting plus layers of earth. They traveled on their lakes in dugout log canoes or rafts of tule bundles. They did not acquire horses until about 1825.
The Modocs’ initial contacts with whites were with fur traders around 1825 when Hudson’s Bay Company brigades traversed their lands. For the next fifteen years the brigades, mostly en route to California, scarcely altered the Modoc living patterns.
During a severe winter around 1830, tribal food cashes were lost in deep snow drifts that obliterated natural landmarks. Consequently, many Modocs died from starvation huddling in their lodges. On one occasion some Modocs were saved from starvation when an antelope herd plunged into Tule Lake in front of their village.
Not until around 1835 did some Modocs travel northward to The Dalles of the Columbia River. Although impressed with the goods traded there, they initially had little to exchange for them. Later they discovered that female slaves brought good prices at the native market. In the following decade Modocs mercilessly raided neighboring California tribes, the Pit Rivers and the Shastas, for human spoils, from the sales of which they acquired horses. Usually they did not take their slaves to The Dalles, but traded them to middlemen, such as the Klamaths and the Teninos, who when there.
During the 1840s and 1850s the Modocs’ contacts with whites were sporadic. Among the white travelers who interrupted their isolation was Capt. John C. Fremont, who entered their lands in December, 1843, and again in May, 1846. In 1846 Fremont’s party traveled northward to around Klamath Marsh, where Klamaths attacked and killed four of its number. The noted western scout Kit Carson, who was with Fremont, returned to burn the Klamath village in retaliation. In July of that same year a fifteen-man party worked its way east from the Willamette valley through the Klamath and Modoc lands, laying out the Scott-Applegate Road, which was a circuitous southern detour from the main Immigrant Road (the Oregon Trail) by which immigrants entered the Willamette valley. In the late summer and early fall of 1846 Modocs attacked immigrants traveling the route.
In 1847 and 1848 many Modocs succumbed to the measles carried by immigrants into their lands, but by 1849 these natives were strong enough to resume raiding white travelers. On one occasion they killed eighteen at a place known to Oregon pioneers as Bloody Point, where the Applegate Road first strikes Tule Lake after its long descent from the highlands around Clear Lake. Equally upsetting to Modocs were the miners who traversed their lands en route to California after gold was discovered there in 1848. Two years later gold was discovered near Yreka, California, near the Modoc country, and more miners trespassed their lands. By summer, 1851, hundreds of whites had occupied Modoc lands, which many of them farmed. Confrontations with the natives caused the whites to organize vigilante groups, against which the Modocs retaliated by more attacks at Bloody Point. Despite provocations they kept out of the Rogue Wars of the 1850s. They were, however, harmed by them, because the whites, after defeating the Indians of the Rogue county, more easily imposed their culture on other tribes in southern Oregon. The Modocs abandoned the slave trade, but their women drifted into prostitution and performed domestic tasks for whites in exchange for money, much of which went for liquor.
When whites grew adamant about removing Indians to reservations, some Modocs, such as Old Schonchin and his band, were willing to remove; but not Captain Jack (Keintpoos) and his band, who knew that whites coveted their lands in the Lost River and Tule Lake countries on which to graze their stock. The upshot of the white pressures was a treaty effected October 14, 1864, with the Modocs, Klamaths, and Yahuskins (Northern Paiutes), by which those tribes agreed to remove to a reservation in the Klamath country. Since the confine was outside their own lands, the Modocs and Yahuskins signed reluctantly. They were perhaps influenced to sign because the Walpapis (Northern Paiutes) under Chief Paulina were attacking the Modocs and Klamaths, who saw a possible alley in the United States military.
American officials preferred to deal with Chief Schonchin instead of his rival, Captain Jack, who repudiated his own signature on the treaty and left the Klamath Reservation in 1865. Despite pressures from the white community for his return, Jack kept aloof from the confine, while Schonchin moved his people from the main Klamath Agency to that at Yainax about thirty-five miles to the east, where they suffered starvation and opposition from the Klamaths. In council on Lost River, December 23, 1869, Jack and 43 of his band agreed to remove to the Klamath Reservation, where they too suffered starvation and Klamath indignities.
In April, 1870, Jack and nearly all the Modocs, about 375 in all, abandoned the reservation for the Lost River country. To survive in that bare-bone country, they demanded rent from area whites. When the latter refused to pay it, Jack and his men raided the stock of passing immigrants. He wished to avoid the Klamath Reservation and insisted on one in his own lands, a request the American officials refused.
Late in 1872 troops closed in on Jack’s camp. Thus began the Modoc War, in which three Modoc bands of only 170 souls withstood 1,000 American troops and settlers, who tried for several months to dislodge them from the fastness of what is now the Lava Beds National Monument in the Tule and Klamath lake basins. Worn down by attrition, the Modocs ended their war on June 1, 1873, when Jack and his chiefs were captured and confined at Fort Klamath. There he and three others were hanged, and two had death sentences commuted to life imprisonment on Alcatriz Island. In October, 1873, 153 Modoc prisoners were settled on the Quapaw Agency in Indian Territory.
In 1902 the Modocs in Indian Territory sent representatives to the Klamaths, seeking their permission to return to the Klamath Reservation. Twenty-one returned in 1903 to settle on the northeastern portion of that reservation. In 1909 the Modocs who had remained on the Quapaw were given the option of selling their lands and returning to Oregon to allot on the Klamath, or keeping and leasing their lands on the Quapaw. The present-day Modoc Tribe of Oklahoma, which has a government-to-government relationship with the United States, is descended from Modocs who remained in Oklahoma and some of the others who went west but returned to Oklahoma to join their fellow tribesmen.
After the return of forty-seven Modocs to the Klamath Reservation from Oklahoma, the Modocs and Klamaths in time became assimilated. In 1964 there were but seven or eight Modocs speaking their native language, and today, largely through intermarriage, there are none of full blood. As people of the Klamath Reservation, Modoc descendants shared in the termination of the Klamath tribe’s trust relationship with the United States in 1954. About 300 of them live today in the area of Chiloquin, about thirty miles north of Klamath Falls, Oregon. See Klamath.
Suggested Readings: S.A. Barrett, "The
Material Culture of the Klamath and Modoc Indians,"
University of California Publications In American
Archaeology and Ethnology 5 (1907-1910);
Jeremiah Curtin, Myths of the Modocs (New
York: B. Bloom, 1912); Ivan Doig, "[Edward] Fox
Among the Modocs," Pacific Search about Nature
and Man in the Pacific Northwest 10, no. 7 (May,
1976); A.B. Meacham, Wigwam and War-Path; Or The
Royal Chief in Chains (Boston: John P. Dale &
Co., 1875); A.B. Meacham, Wi-Ne-Ma (The
Woman-chief.) And Her People (Hartford, Conn.:
American Publishing Co., 1876); Keith A. Murray,
The Modocs and Their War (Norman: University of
Oklahoma Press, 1959); Vern F. Ray, Primitive
Pragmatists: The Modoc Indians of Northern
California (Seattle: University of Washington
Press, 1963); Jeff C. Riddle, The Indian History
of the Modoc War and the Causes that Led to It
(Eugene, Ore.: Urion Press, 1914).
US Dollars Paid to the Klamath Indians Through 1982:
Date $ Paid Reason for Payment
June 17, 1901 $ 537,001.20 621,824.28 Acres Reservation Excluded Lands
November 2, 1907 $ 108,750.00 86,418.06 Acres "Lost Acreage" on Military Road
June 15, 1935 $ 83,000,000.00 1,660 Tribal members withdrew and received $50,000 each
April 25, 1958 $ 5,313,347.32 86,418.06 Acres – Court of Claims – Additional payment
1961 $ 21,235,496.80 Additional Compensation for Tribal Lands
1962 $ 2,220,793.20 Additional Compensation for Tribal Lands
January 31, 1965 $ 2,500,000.00 Court of Claims – Lands Ceded
September 2, 1969 $ 4,162,992.82 Court of Claims – Boundary – Survey Error
January 16, 1976 $ 785,000.00 Court of Claims – Mismanagement of Grazing and Ag Land
January 27, 1977 $ 18,000,000.00 Court of Claims – Mismanagement of Tribal Funds
1980 $ 8,182,900.00 600 Tribal Members that remained in 1935, were withdrawn
May 1, 1982 $ 16,500,000.00 Court of Claims – Mismanagement of Tribal Forest and Sawmill
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